1. Identify the mechanisms of heredity.
2. Describe the process of conception, and explain how the resulting organism’s genotype accounts for genetic diversity.
3. Explain how sex is determined.
4. Distinguish between monozygotic and dizygotic twins.
5. (text and A View from Science) Discuss issues related to the use of assisted reproductive technology for infertile couples.
6. Differentiate genotype from phenotype, and describe the processes of duplication,
division, and differentiation.
7. Explain the polygenic and multifactorial nature of human traits, and discuss the major findings of the Human Genome Project.
8. Describe the additive and nonadditive patterns of genetic interaction, giving examples of the traits that result from each type of interaction.
9. Discuss X-linked genes in terms of genotype and phenotype.
10. Discuss the interaction of genes and environment, focusing on the development of addiction and visual acuity.
11. Discuss some practical applications of the genotype–phenotype interaction.
12. Describe the most common chromosomal abnormalities, including abnormalities involving the sex chromosomes.
13. Identify two common dominant-gene disorders, and discuss reasons for their relatively low incidence of occurrence.
14. Describe sex-linked and recessive-gene disorders, noting a reason for their high incidence of occurrence.
15. Describe five situations in which couples should seek genetic testing and counseling.
16. (A View from Science) Explain why scientists refuse to test for genes that predispose a psychological disorder.